2. Reexamining the Effect of Birth Order on Cognition and Noncognition: New Evidence from China, (with Naijia Guo and Junsen Zhang), Revise and Resubmit at Economics of Education ReviewAbstract: We present rich new evidence on birth order effects on cognition and noncognition using a rural sample from China Family Panel Studies. Within families, being the later-born child confers both statistically and economically significant disadvantages in cognition, but has no effects on noncognition. In particular, the deficits in the cognition of the later-born are persistently large between the ages 10 and 18, despite showing a modest decrease with age. We shed new light on the mediating role of school starting age, which explains more than a quarter of the total effect of birth order on cognition. We also find that birth order is negatively associated with home environment and parent–child interactions. In addition, we find a negative relationship between birth order and education among adults, which suggests that China today shares more similarities with developed economies.